The Gita is a doctrine of universal truth. Its message is universal, sublime, and non-sectarian although it is a part of the scriptural trinity of Sanaatana Dharma, commonly known as Hinduism. The Gita is very easy to understand in any language for a mature mind. A repeated reading with faith will reveal all the sublime ideas contained in it. A few abstruse statements are interspersed here and there but they have no direct bearing on practical issues or the central theme of Gita. The Gita deals with the most sacred metaphysical science. It imparts the knowledge of the Self and answers two universal questions: Who am I, and how can I lead a happy and peaceful life in this world of dualities. It is a book of yoga, the moral and spiritual growth, for mankind based on the cardinal principles of the Hindu religion.
The message of the Gita came to humanity because of Arjuna’s unwillingness to do his duty as a warrior because fighting involved destruction and killing. Nonviolence or Ahimsa is one of the most fundamental tenets of Hinduism. All lives, human or non-human, are sacred. This immortal discourse between the Supreme Lord, Krishna, and His devotee-friend, Arjuna, occurs not in a temple, a secluded forest, or on a mountain top but on a battlefield on the eve of a war and is recorded in the great epic, Mahaabhaarata. In the Gita Lord Krishna advises Arjuna to get up and fight. This may create a misunderstanding of the principles of Ahimsa if the background of the war of Mahaabhaarata is not kept in mind. Therefore, a brief historical description is in order.
In ancient times there was a king who had two sons, Dhritaraashtra and Paandu. The former was born blind, therefore, Paandu inherited the kingdom. Paandu had five sons. They were called the Paandavs. Dhritaraashtra had one hundred sons. They were called the Kauravs. Duryodhana was the eldest of the Kauravs.
After the death of king Paandu, the eldest son of Paandu became the lawful King. Duryodhana was a very jealous person. He also wanted the kingdom. The kingdom was divided into two halves between the Paandavs and the Kauravs. Duryodhana was not satisfied with his share of the kingdom. He wanted the entire kingdom for himself. He unsuccessfully planned several foul plots to kill the Paandavs and take away their kingdom. He unlawfully took possession of the entire kingdom of the Paandavs and refused to give back even an acre of land without a war. All mediation by Lord Krishna and others failed. The big war of Mahaabhaarata was thus inevitable. The Paandavs were unwilling participants. They had only two choices: Fight for their right as a matter of duty or run away from war and accept defeat in the name of peace and nonviolence. Arjuna, one of the five Paandava brothers, faced the dilemma in the battlefield whether to fight, or run away from war for the sake of peace.
Arjuna’s dilemma is, in reality, the universal dilemma. Every human being faces dilemmas, big and small, in their everyday life when performing their duties. Arjuna’s dilemma was a big one. He had to make a choice between fighting the war and killing his most revered guru who was on the other side, very dear friends, close relatives, and many innocent warriors; or running away from the battlefield for the sake of preserving the peace and nonviolence. The entire seven hundred verses of the Gita is a discourse between Lord Krishna and the confused Arjuna on the battlefield of Kurukshetra near New Delhi, India, in about 3,100 years BCE. This discourse was narrated to the blind king, Dhritaraashtr, by his charioteer, Sanjaya, as an eyewitness war report.
The main objective of the Gita is to help people ¾ struggling in the darkness of ignorance ¾ cross the ocean of transmigration and reach the spiritual shore of liberation while living and working in the society. The central teaching of the Gita is the attainment of freedom or happiness from the bondage of life by doing one’s duty. Always remember the glory and greatness of the creator and do your duty efficiently without being attached to or affected by the results even if that duty may at times demand unavoidable violence. Some people neglect or give up their duty in life for the sake of a spiritual life while others excuse themselves from spiritual practices because they believe that they have no time. The Lord’s message is to sanctify the entire living process itself. Whatever a person does or thinks ought to be done for the glory and satisfaction of the Maker. No effort or cost is necessary for this process. Do your duty as a service to the Lord and humanity, and see God alone in everything in a spiritual frame of mind. In order to gain such a spiritual frame of mind, personal discipline, austerity, penance, good conduct, selfless service, yogic practices, meditation, worship, prayer, rituals, and study of scriptures, as well as the company of holy persons, pilgrimage, chanting of the holy names of God, and Self-inquiry are needed to purify the body, mind, and intellect. One must learn to give up lust, anger, greed, and establish mastery over the mind and five senses (hearing, touch, sight, taste, smell) by the purified intellect. One should always remember that all works are done by the energy of nature and that he or she is not the doer but only an instrument. One must strive for excellence in all undertakings but maintain equanimity in success and failure, gain and loss, and pain and pleasure.
The ignorance of metaphysical knowledge is humanity’s greatest predicament. A scripture, being the voice of transcendence, cannot be translated. Language is incapable and translations are defective to clearly impart the knowledge of the Absolute. In this rendering, an attempt has been made to keep the style as close as possible to the original Sanskrit poetry and yet make it easy to read and understand. An attempt has been made to improve the clarity by adding words or phrases, within parenthesis, in the English translation of the verses. A glossary and index have been included. One hundred and thirty-three (133) key verses are printed in pink for the convenience of beginners. We suggest all our readers to ponder, contemplate, and act upon these verses. The beginners and the busy executives should first read and understand the meaning of these key verses before delving deep into the bottomless ocean of transcendental knowledge of the Gita.
According to the scriptures, no sin, however heinous, can affect one who reads, ponders, and practices the teachings of Gita any more than water affects the lotus leaf. The Lord Himself resides where Gita is kept, read, chanted, or taught. The Gita is the knowledge Supreme and the sound embodiment of the Absolute and the Eternal. One who reads, ponders, and practices the teachings of Gita with faith and devotion will attain Moksha (or Nirvana) by the grace of God.
This book is dedicated to all the gurus whose blessings, grace, and teachings have been invaluable. It is offered to the greatest Guru, Lord Krishna, with love and devotion. May the Lord accept it, and bless those who repeatedly read this with peace, happiness, and the true knowledge of the Self.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The International Gita Society
The International Gita Society (IGS) is a registered, non-profit, tax-exempt, spiritual institution in the United States of America under Section 501(c) (3) of the IRS Code. It was founded in 1984 to enlighten and serve the humanity through the medium of the Bhagavad-Gita. The Aims and Objectives of IGS include the following:
1.To publish the Bhagavad-Gita in English and other languages and distribute it at a nominal subsidized cost, and put the Gita in libraries, hospitals, hotels, motels, and other public places throughout the world, starting from India and the USA, similar to what the International Bible Society has done for the Bible all over the world.
2.To Spread the basic Non-sectarian Universal Teachings of Shrimad Bhagavad-Gita and other Vedic scriptures in an easy to understand language by establishing branches of the Society in other countries to be named as: International Gita Society (IGS). The membership to the Society will be free, and open to all.
3.To provide support, and guidance in establishing Gita Study and Discussion (Satsang) Groups, and provide free Gita correspondence course to the youth, students, busy executives and other interested persons.
4.To provide inspiration, cooperation, and support to persons and non-profit organizations engaged in the study and propagation of the Vedic knowledge; and to arrange lectures, seminars, and short courses on meditation, yoga, and metaphysical sciences.
5.To break the barriers between faiths, and establish unity of races, religions castes, and creeds through the immortal non-sectarian teachings of the Vedas, Upanishads, Gita, Ramayana, as well as other major world scriptures such as the Dhammapada, the Bible, and the Koran; and to promote the Universal Brotherhood of Humankind.
Readers interested in promoting the ideals of the society are invited to correspond with the secretary: firstname.lastname@example.org
The International Gita Society
511 Lowell Place
Fremont, California 94536-1805 117, USA
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
AiU Aitareya Upanishad
BP Bhagavata Maha Purana
BrU Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
ChU Chaandogya Upanishad
DB Devi Bhagavatam
IsU Ishavasya Upanishad
KaU Katha Upanishad
KeU Kena Upanishad
MaU Mandukya Upanishad
MS Manu Smriti
MuU Mundaka Upanishad
NBS Narada BhaktiSutra
PrU Prashna Upanishad
PYS Patanjali YogaSutra
SBS Shandilya BhaktiSutra
ShU Shvetashvatara Upanishad
TaU Taittiriya Upanishad
TR Tulasi Ramayana
VP Vishnu Purana
VR Valmiki Ramayanam
YV Yajurveda, Vajasaneyi Samhita